The Living Organisms -Characteristics and Habitats

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The Living Organisms -Characteristics and Habitats


Habitat –

The place where organisms live. It provides food, shelter, and other needs for organisms.


Biotic and Abiotic components-

Biotic – All the living organisms in a habitat.
Example – Plants, animals, etc.

Abiotic – All the non-living organisms in a habitat.
Example – Rocks, soil, water, etc.

Types of habitat-

1:Terrestrial habitats-

The plants and animals that live on land are said to be live in terrestrial habitats.
Eg- forests, grassland, etc.

(a)DESERTS-

  • There are desert animals like rats, camels, and snakes. Rats and snakes stay away from the heat during the day and come out only during the night when it is cooler.
  • Desert plants love very little water through transpiration. The leaves in the desert are either absent or very small or in the form of spines which helps in reducing the loss of water.

(b)MOUNTAIN REGIONS-

  • Normally very cold and windy, snowfall may take place in winters.
  • Animals living in the mountain regions have thick skin and long hair to protect them from cold.
  • Trees are normally cone-shaped and have sloping branches. The leaves of some trees are needle-like, which helps rainwater and snow to slide off easily.

(C )GRASSLAND-

  • We can understand this with the help of examples lions have long claws in their front legs and have light brown color helps it to hide in dry glass prints when it hurts for prey. The eye in the front of the face allows it to have a correct idea about the location of its prey this means that there are many features of animals and plants that help them to survive in their habitat.

2-Aquatic habitats-

The habitats of plants and animals that live in water.
Example – Lakes, rivers, etc.

(a)OCEANS-

  • Sea animals have streamlined bodies so that they can move easily in water. These animals have gills to have them use oxygen dissolved in water. They breathe in air through nostrils on blowholes that are located on the upper part of their head.

(b)PONDS AND LAKES-

  • In the aquatic plants, roots are much reduced in size and their main function is to hold the plant in place full stop the stems of these plants are long and hollow. The stems grow up to the surface of the water by the leaves and flowers float on the surface of the water. They are submerged in water. All parts of such plants are underwater.

Characteristics of the organism-

1- Plants make their own food by the process of photosynthesis while animals depend on plants or other animals for their food. Food gives the energy to grow.

2- All the organisms show growth.

3-All organism respire. When we inhale the air comes from outside to the inside of the body. When we breathe out the air moves from inside our body to outside. Breathing is a part of a process called respiration. All the organisms respire all animals some animals may have different mechanisms for the exchange of gases. Example earthworm breathe show their skin fish have gills for using oxygen dissolved in water except

4-All the egg organism no from one place to another and also show other body movements.

5- Animals reproduce their kind. The mode of reproduction may be different in different animals. Some animals produce their young ones to eggs. Some animals give birth to their young ones. Plants have also had a different mode of reproduction.

6-Organism responds to stimuli.


Exercise


1- What is a habitat?

Answer: The place where organisms live. It provides food, shelter, and other needs for organisms.

2. How are cactus adapted to survive in a desert?

Answer: Cactus are adapted to survive in a desert as they have

(i) spiny leaves that prevent water loss.

(ii) Stems are modified so that it can perform photosynthesis.

3. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The presence of specific features which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat is called _______________.

(b) The habitats of the plants and animals that live on land are called ___________ habitats.

(c)The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called _____________ habitats.

(d) Soil, water, and air are the _____________ factors of habitats.

(e) Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them are called __________.

(a) adaptation

(b) terrestrial

(c) aquatic

(d) abiotic

(e) stimuli

4. Which of the things in the following list are non-living: Plough, Mushrooms, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, Water, Hyacinth, Earthworm,

Answer: Plough, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, and water are non-living.

5. Give an example of a non-living thing that shows any two characteristics of a living thing.

Answer: Example of non-living thing is a balloon which shows the following two characteristics of living things:

(i) It can grow in size

(ii) It moves from one place to another.

6. Which of the following non-living things were once part of a living thing?

Answer: Butter, Leather, Soil, Wool, Electric Bulb, Cooking Oil, Salt, Apple, Rubber. Ans: Butter, Leather, Wool, Cooking oil, Apple and Rubber are the non-living things that were once part of a living thing.

7. List the common characteristics of living things.

Answer: Some common characteristics of living things are:

-It shows growth

-Moves from one place to another.

-It reproduces young ones

-Respiration

-Responsiveness

-Excretion

8. Explain why speed is important for survival in the grasslands for animals that live there. (Hint: There are few trees or places for animals to hide in grasslands habitats).

Answer: In grasslands habitats, there is less number of trees or places for animals to hide. When their enemy attacks they have to run faster so as they can protect themselves from enemies So, speed is very important for the survival of grassland animals.