Northern plain of India

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Northern plain of India


 


  • The northern plain of India is formed by the Indus, Ganga and its tributaries.
  • The northern plain of India is made of alluvial soil.
  • The northern plain of India is approximately 2400 Km long and 240–320 Km wide.
  • The northern plain of India is spread over an area of ​​7 lakh sq sq Km.
  • The northern plain of India is a densely populated geographical area.
  • The vast plain of India is one of the most fertile and densely populated land parts of the world.
  • The rivers coming from the northern mountains are engaged in the deposition work.
  • The speed of the river decreases as the slope in the lower parts of the river decreases, resulting in the formation of riverine islands. These rivers get divided into many streams due to silt deposition at their bottom. These streams are called distributaries.

The northern plain is broadly divided into three sections.

  1. Punjab (Indus) Plain
  2. Gangetic plain
  3. Brahmaputra plain

Punjab Plain –

  • The western part of the northern plain is called the plain of Punjab (Indus).
  • A large part of this plain formed by the Indus and its tributaries is located in Pakistan.
  • The Indus and its tributaries Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej originate from the Himalayas.
  • The number of Doabs in this part of the field is very high.

Ganga Plain –

  • The Gangetic plain extends between the Ghaggar and Teesta rivers.
  • It is widespread in the northern states of Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal.

Brahmputra Plain –

  • Brahmaputra plain is located to the west especially in Assam.
  • The northern plains are generally interpreted as flat sites with no diversity in its reliefs.
The geographical shapes of these wide plains also vary. The northern plains are divided into four parts, depending on soil characteristics and gradient.
Can be divided.

  1. Bhabar Plain
  2. Tarai Plain
  3. Bangar Plain
  4. Khadar Plain

Bhabar Plain –

  • While descending from the Himalayan rivers, the Gutika (stones and pebbles) are deposited in an 8–16 Km wide strip on the Shivalik slope.
  • All rivers disappear in this Bhabar belt.

Tarai Plain – 

  • Extinct rivers in the Bhabar belt These rivers reappear to the south of this belt, forming a moist and marshy area known as the Rai Tarai ‘.
  • It was a region of dense forests filled with wildlife.
  • This forest has been cut down to provide arable land to the refugees who came from Pakistan after Partition.
  • It is a low-level plain, where the water of rivers forms marshy areas here and there.

Bangar Plain –

  • The largest part of the northern plain is made up of old alluvium.
  • It is made of old alluvial soil brought by rivers.
  • The soil in Bangar plain region contains limestone deposits called ‘pebbles’ in the local language, which are made of calcium.

Khadar Plain – 

  • Khadar plain is made from soil brought by rivers every year, so they are fertile and the fertility of this soil is highest.
  • New and young deposits of flood plains are called ‘Khadar’.